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For our ancestors who didn’t have the benefit of a world map...

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For our ancestors who didn’t have the benefit of a world map...

Rizom - April,2018
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For our ancestors who didn’t have the benefit of a world map...

Rizom - April,2018
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For our ancestors who didn’t have the benefit of a world map...

Rizom - April,2018
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走天涯 05月19日 20:24
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美国全面封杀华为,才发现这个中国科学家厉害得超乎想象!而他被    收藏
当日阅读次数:2    当日博文总阅读数: 3,134


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white-space: normal; text-indent: 2em; line-height: 1.5

这两天,任正非最担心的事情发生,

美国直接发起了,

对华为无理由的全面封杀,

引发国内一片热议,

上至中国高层,下至普通中国老百姓,

都终于看出了“中国芯”的分量。

但是今天的华为,

不是以前的中兴

又岂是说封杀就能封杀!


就在刚刚,

华为在英国伦敦发布最新5G手机:

Mate 20 X 5G版本手机!

这是一次绝地反击,

华为Mate 20 X 5G手机,

搭载“华为最强”芯片:

全世界首款7纳米工艺,

多模5G芯片巴龙5000+麒麟980!

硬气华为,终结无芯之痛,

向全世界宣告:

7nm级的最顶级芯片,

苹果有高通有,华为,也有!


而美国继封杀中兴后

再次封杀华为事件后,

都不禁让我想到了这个中国人。


他是一个极具远见的中国院士

早在23年前,

就拼命告诉人们中国芯有多重要,

可他却被赶出了所在公司,

还被人们嘲笑……

看完这篇文章,

你才会发现他究竟有多厉害!


他,就是倪光南



倪光南生于1939年,浙江镇海人。

当时正值日本侵略中国,

幼小的他不得不跟着父母四处逃难,

这段痛苦的经历,让他深刻意识到,

国家富强才能不受欺负,

从那时起,他就立下了强国的志向。


到了和平年代,

他开始了自己的求学之路。

1950年,11岁的他进入上海复兴中学,

1956年,他以优异成绩,

考入南京工学院无线电系,

5年后,又以全5分的优异成绩,

完成了大学的全部课程。



毕业后,他到中科院计算所工作,

这一工作就是几十年,

他在中科院参与研制了,

我国自行设计的第一台电子管计算机,

首创了在汉字输入中应用联想功能,

 跨越了从“汉字”到“计算机”的巨大鸿沟。


1981年,加拿大国家研究院,

邀请他担任访问研究员,

他在加拿大的年薪高达4.3万加元,

相当于当时国内工资的70倍,

这是多少人羡慕的工作啊,

就算在加拿大,

这薪水也属于5%的高收入人群啊!


然而他却因为一件事,

毫不犹豫就选择了回国。


1981年,倪光南在加拿大渥太华街头。  


一天,他逛街时看到一家鞋店,

橱窗里陈列着各种外国生产的皮鞋,

而“中国制造”的鞋,

被乱七八糟地丢在一个筐里,

1.99元一双任拣。

这件事深深触动了他,他心想:

“中国制造”什么时候才能,

不与“简陋”、“低级”连在一起?


于是1983年,

他毅然放弃加拿大的高薪回国,

朋友们都说他傻,

可他却依然坚持自己的选择,他说:

“如果我不回来,我此后所做的一切,

不会对“中国制造”有所帮助。”


他打算将自己的知识和智慧,

毫无保留地,全部献给祖国!



80年代的中国,

个人计算机市场日渐萌芽,

那时国外进口的计算机又昂贵,

又无法识别汉字和操作中文系统,

在这样的背景下,他发明了“联想功能”:

利用中国文字中词组和同音字的特性,

建立起自己的汉字识别体系。

他将自己这项跨时代的技术研究,

命名为“联想式汉字系统”。


1984年,中科院计算所,

为转化科技成果创办了计算机公司,

而他被聘请为公司总工程师,

他觉得自己有了一个更大的梦想舞台,

便全身心地投入其中,

渴望带领这家公司走上世界!



他将自己辛苦研究出来的,

联想式汉卡的全部技术带入公司,

而且一进公司,

就开始通宵达旦地工作起来。



经过几个月的奋战,1985年5月,

他向市场推出了适用于,

PC机的第一型联想式汉卡,

他的“联想”汉卡当年就销售了300万,

创造了重大的经济和社会效益,

也彻底改变了整个公司的命运。

最终,连公司名字都改成了“联想”



之后,他担任公司董事兼总工,

主持开发了联想系列微机,

确立了公司的主营业务。

1992年,他获国家科技进步一等奖,

1994年,他众望所归,

成为了首批中国工程院院士。



也许是作为科学家的敏感,

在联想集团势头一片大好时,

他考虑的不是,

如何赚更多钱,如何扩大规模,

而是考虑,

如何拥有联想自己的核心技术,

他希望下一步全力开展“中国芯”工程。


然而公司高层却认为,

有高科技产品不一定能卖得出去,

只有卖出去,才有钱。


他和总裁柳传志的意见不合,

因此开始了一场持续半年的“战争”,

每天的会议上两人都要辩论。

而在1995年6月30日,

就在联想上市的前夜,

他这个联想的大功臣,

居然被免去了总工程师的职务!


这场“战争”最终以他的失败告终。



之后联想在柳传志的带领下,

生意是做得越来越大,钱也赚得越来越多,

2013年,联想电脑销量升居世界第一,

2014年,联想完成对摩托罗拉移动的收购,

……

柳传志也成为了中国商界的传奇人物,

被称为“中国商业教父”。



从结果看,一切的一切,

都在证明当初真的是他错了,

可即便如此,

他也不肯放弃自己的想法。


他觉得我国IT产业规模虽大但利润低,

没有自己的核心技术,

CPU和操作系统都不是中国自己的,

50%的利润是外国的,

而自己只占大约2%的利润,

因此,中国必须要有自己的“脑”和“芯”。


那时加拿大华人李德磊,

创办了一家企业叫舟科技,

1999年,李德磊带着一支,

做CPU的完整技术队伍找到了他,

希望能一起合作,这也正是他梦寐以求的。


李德磊


他急忙帮方舟科技找钱、找政府,

找任何他能找到的资源,

而他从来就没有考虑过自己的利益,

完完全全的零股份。


之后在他的努力下,

2001年,方舟1号横空出世,

媒体惊呼:“改写了中国‘无芯’的历史。”

他们的项目也成了政府支持的重点项目。


然而谁能料到,

开始是辉煌的,结局却是无比地惨淡!



有做CPU的技术了,

政府也给了支持,芯片也做出来了,

可他找遍整个中国,

居然都没有一家公司有能力,

基于一块CPU开发产品原型。


他们捧着中国芯,捧着CPU,

想把它献给国人,

中国却没有一家企业能接。

无奈之下,方舟科技又建立硬件团队,

自己做产品原型,结果原型做完,

又发现没有配套软件可用,

更令人头疼的是缺钱。


 “方舟3号”研发经费拨款1538万元,

按照“863课题”的项目预算要求,

给科研人员的工资部分不得超过15%,

约230万元,也就是说,

方舟科技参与研发的近60位工程人员,

每月工资也就2千多块钱。

而微软一年研发能投入1000亿人民币。


他们哭诉钱太少了,连发工资都不够,

结果有专家还嘲笑他们说:

芯片项目资金,

主要用在流片和EDA工具上面,

人员工资只是小头。


最终在种种阻碍下,

国家重点支持的项目彻底失败了,

倪光南也沦为了人们眼中的笑柄。



可他还是没有灰心,

他又不遗余力地到处奔走呼吁。


从1995年离开联想后,

他就开始不停地跟人们强调,

中国要发展IT核心技术,

特别是自主操作系统和国产CPU,

这关系到信息安全,

也关系到产业持续发展的问题。

他说:

“我国现在应该大力开发自主操作系统,

不可不搞,不可慢搞”。


2013年他更是直接上书中国最高领导人:

基于共享软件架构,

开发发展中国自主可控的操作系统。

而习手写批示了200多字:

计算机操作系统等信息化核心技术,

和信息基础设施的重要性显而易见,

我们在一些关键技术和设备上,

受制于人的问题必须及早解决。


2016年,他又公开说:

“航空飞机被波音、空客所垄断,

总数量也可能只是数十万级别。

但全世界几十亿台智能终端,

只有三种操作系统:

苹果、安卓和windows,

这种垄断在全世界找不到第二例。

智能终端操作系统的垄断不打破,

终端安全和大数据安全也就无从谈起,

中国要成为网络强国,

必须解决智能终端操作系统被垄断的问题。”


2017年,

他又提到:没有核心技术,

只能给国外企业当“马甲”。

核心技术受制于人,

是我们目前中国最大的隐患,

而且不要指望能够买到核心技术,

因为外国对我们的方针,

从封锁禁运变为技术合作,

可往往是以合作之名,

行穿马甲之实,实际上,

是希望中国放弃追赶,停止构建,

安全可控的信息技术体系,

这样,中国就会永远的依赖进口。 


而就在2017年年末,

在首届中国网络安全产业高峰论坛上,

已经78岁高龄的他,

还在发表演讲,再次呼吁:

我国的信息基础设施,

以及信息化所需的软硬件和服务,

大量地来自于外国跨国公司。

由此构成的基础设施或信息系统,

就像沙滩上的建筑,

在遭到攻击时顷刻间便会土崩瓦解。



可尽管他如此的努力,

得到的却不是掌声,而是嘲笑声。

人们都说他像个唐吉柯德,

活在自己的幻想里,

被联想赶出去就算了,

还“不识时务”非要搞别人不搞的东西,

真是做研究做傻了,

太书生意气,太固执、太自私!


可他付出这么多,

最后自己什么都没得到,

一世英名毁了,项目失败了,

自己的日子还过得越来越差,

他出行骑的只是一辆老旧的自行车,

身上穿的棉服,

居然还是2001年的那一件。


而就在2019年的5月,

却让我们所有中国人,

都重新认识了这位老人!


5月16日,美国宣布将禁止美国公司,

向华为出售一切相关技术和产品

尤其是半导体!


这跟去年4月16日,

美国宣布将禁止美国公司,

向违反规定的中兴通讯,

销售零部件、商品、软件和技术长达 7 年,

直到 2025年3月13日解禁!

所用招式一模一样

导致庞大的中兴彻底“休克”了!


从规模上来说,

当时的中兴通讯可是全中国第二,

全球第四大的电信通讯设备生产商。

可美国的一道禁令,

就能立即让中兴陷入休克!

因为中兴通讯约有20%至30%的元器件,

都是由总部在美国的厂商来供应。

除了中兴,中国的企业,

大部分都是走中国设计全球采购的道路,

也就是说在这场中美贸易战里,

扼杀中国企业的主动权,

是掌握在美国人手里的!

只要美国愿意,

还会有第二个中兴、第三个中兴,

第一百个中兴……

 


现在回看,我们才发现,

这位已近耄耋之年的老人,

是多么地有远见,

可遗憾的是,他拼命呼喊了20多年,

却始终没有一个人,

肯去认真地,好好地听一听他说的话,

结果现在,全部中国人,

都不得不为“无芯”买单。

直到我们有了今天的华为


2019年,这位老人已经80岁了,

可他还在坚持,

还在为中国自主可控的芯片

与操作系统奔走呼吁。


他很喜欢一首歌,

那首歌是他在年幼时,

一个老师教他唱的,

以德沃夏克《自新大陆》,

第二乐章配词的歌:

黄金的年华虚度过,

才知道从前铸成大错。

萧萧两鬓白徒唤奈何,

瘦影已婆娑徒唤奈何?

雄心壮志早消磨,斜阳景已不多。

深悔蹉跎,深悔蹉跎。


这首歌,

一直是他对自己的鼓励和鞭策,

他的雄心壮志还未完成,

他不愿意去安度晚年,虚度光阴,

他还奔跑在追梦的路上,

而他一生的梦想从未变过,那就是:

“推动自主创新,

从中国制造到中国创造!”



他说:对于人生,

我的理解是不要计较小事,

不要急功近利,要看得长远一些。


如今,历史已经在一步步,

证明他的远见与卓识,

我们终于能够客观地评价他。


他用研究成果和洞察力,

奠定了联想集团的基石;

他居安思危,忍受非议,

为中国信息产业和国家自主创新,

奔走呼吁、摇旗呐喊20余年。


他是真正的学者,

是真正的科学家,

更是真正的中国良心!

一腔报国志,执著50载,

院士倪光南,

今天你值得我们所有国人的致敬和点赞!

致敬,转发



50. All you can do is to try your best. Even with those small steps, youre closer to your goal than you were yesterday. When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Like many who lived through the war, they had experienced enough excitement that, when it was over, they desired simply to settle down, raise a family, and lead a less eventful life. They had little money, so they moved to Wisconsin and lived with Paul’s parents for a few years, then headed for Indiana, where he got a job as a machinist for International Harvester. His passion was tinkering with old cars, and he made money in his spare time buying, restoring, and selling them. Eventually he quit his day job to become a full-time used car salesman. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mother, he later said, was a “traditional Muslim woman” who was a “conservative, obedient housewife.” Like the Schieble family, the Jandalis put a premium on education. Abdulfattah was sent to a Jesuit boarding school, even though he was Muslim, and he got an undergraduate degree at the American University in Beirut before entering the University of Wisconsin to pursue a doctoral degree in political science. In the summer of 1954, Joanne went with Abdulfattah to Syria. They spent two months in Homs, where she learned from his family to cook Syrian dishes. When they returned to Wisconsin she discovered that she was pregnant. They were both twenty-three, but they decided not to get married. Her father was dying at the time, and he had threatened to disown her if she wed Abdulfattah. Nor was abortion an easy option in a small Catholic community. So in early 1955, Joanne traveled to San Francisco, where she was taken into the care of a kindly doctor who sheltered unwed mothers, delivered their babies, and quietly arranged closed adoptions. Joanne had one requirement: Her child must be adopted by college graduates. So the doctor arranged for the baby to be placed with a lawyer and his wife. But when a boy was born—on February 24, 1955—the designated couple decided that they wanted a girl and backed out. Thus it was that the boy became the son not of a lawyer but of a high school dropout with a passion for mechanics and his salt-of-the-earth wife who was working as a bookkeeper. Paul and Clara named their new baby Steven Paul Jobs. When Joanne found out that her baby had been placed with a couple who had not even graduated from high school, she refused to sign the adoption papers. The standoff lasted weeks, even after the baby had settled into the Jobs household. Eventually Joanne relented, with the stipulation that the couple promise—indeed sign a pledge—to fund a savings account to pay for the boy’s college education. There was another reason that Joanne was balky about signing the adoption papers. Her father was about to die, and she planned to marry Jandali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about mechanical things.” 171. If you dont build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。 172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。 173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是--不放弃。(华特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。 175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one example: Nearby was an engineer who was working at Westinghouse. He was a single guy, beatnik type. He had a girlfriend. She would babysit me sometimes. Both my parents worked, so I would come here right after school for a couple of hours. He would get drunk and hit her a couple of times. She came over one night, scared out of her wits, and he came over drunk, and my dad stood him down—saying “She’s here, but you’re not coming in.” He stood right there. We like to think everything was idyllic in the 1950s, but this guy was one of those engineers who had messed-up lives. 171. If you dont build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。 172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。 173. The difference in winning and losing is most often...not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是--不放弃。(华特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。 175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。 176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 为你的生命想一个全新剧本,并去倾情出演吧! 177. Id rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。 178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺·罗斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。 180. Dont let dream just be your dream. 别让梦想只停留在梦里。 181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。 183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。 What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, which was dubbed a “microprocessor.” Moore’s Law has held generally true to this day, and its reliable projection of performance to price allowed two generations of young entrepreneurs, including Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, to create cost projections for their forward-leaning products. The chip industry gave the region a new name when Don Hoefler, a columnist for the weekly trade paper Electronic News, began a series in January 1971 entitled “Silicon Valley USA.” The forty-mile Santa Clara Valley, which stretches from South San Francisco through Palo Alto to San Jose, has as its commercial backbone El Camino Real, the royal road that once connected California’s twenty-one mission churches and is now a bustling avenue that connects companies and startups accounting for a third of the venture capital investment in the United States each year. “Growing up, I got inspired by the history of the place,” Jobs said. “That made me want to be a part of it.” Like most kids, he became infused with the passions of the grown-ups around him. “Most of the dads in the neighborhood did really neat stuff, like photovoltaics and batteries and radar,” Jobs recalled. “I grew up in awe of that stuff and asking people about it.” The most important of these neighbors, Larry Lang, lived seven doors away. “He was my model of what an HP engineer was supposed to be: a big ham radio operator, hard-core electronics guy,” Jobs recalled. “He would bring me stuff to play with.” As we walked up to Lang’s old house, Jobs pointed to the driveway. “He took a carbon microphone and a battery and a speaker, and he put it on this driveway. He had me talk into the carbon mike and it amplified out of the speaker.” Jobs had been taught by his father that microphones always required an electronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.” So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years

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