齐特琴
2012-03-04-Trachselwald (Foto Dietrich Michael Weidmann) 002.JPG
一个典型的齐特琴
弦乐器
分类

弦乐器(一般分类法)
弦鸣乐器萨克斯分类法
H-S
分类
314.122-4
(弦线横放、附盒形音箱的全板型齐特琴,使用琴锤)
起源 16至17世纪
相关乐器

桑图尔德西马琴英语Dulcimer匈牙利扬琴英语Cimbalom

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齐特琴(德语:Zither)是一种既是指弦乐器中一个类别的乐器,已同时该类别某些特定乐器的名称。德语的本名zither字源来自拉丁词语 cithara,跟现代英语吉他(guitar)同源。结构演化自中世纪拨弦乐瑟(psaltery),流行于奥地利蒂罗尔巴伐利亚。琴由一个形状扁平的木质共鸣箱,再加上4或5根的旋律弦和37根的伴奏弦所组成;旋律弦靠向弹奏者,用左手手指上的拨子弹奏。伴奏弦则可用任何一只手的手指弹奏。齐特琴常在轻歌剧中表现情节的乡土气息。[1][2][3]

调音

齐特琴的调音表如下:

ZITHER TUNING CHART
FRETTED UNFRETTED
STRING Melody Accompaniment Basses Countrabasses
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PITCH Munich A4 A4 D4 G3 C3 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G3 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#3 C#4 G#3 Eb3 Bb2 F3 C3 G2 D3 A2 E3 B2 F#2 C#3 G#2 F2 E2 Eb2 D2 C#2 C2 B1 Bb1 A1 G#1 G1 F#1 F1
Viennese A4 D4 G3 G3 C3 Ab4 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G4 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#4 C#4 G#3 Eb2 Bb2 F2 C3 G2 D2 A2 E2 B2 F#2 C#2 G#2 C2 B1 Bb1 A1 G# G1 F#1 F1
Notes: Basic Concert Alpine

参考来源

  1. ^ Strings on a table. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 
  2. ^ zither. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 
  3. ^ zither. Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 

文献

  • Dearling, Robert; Stringed Instruments; Chelsea House Publishing (2000). ISBN 0791060926
  • Marcuse, Sibyl; Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary; W. W. Norton & Company (1975). ISBN 0393007588
  • Mühlemann, Lorenz; Die Zither in der Schweiz: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart ; Turtleback (1995). ISBN 3-729-60584-4 (German)
  • Ralston, Jack L.; A Selective Bibliography for the Zither; University of Missouri (1981). ASIN: B00072D9GI
  • Schuler, Manfred; Zither In Der Volksmusik , vol. 1 & 2; Unbekannt . ISBN 3-853-66837-2, 3-708-40155-7 (German)

外部链接

  • "Fretless Zithers" at MinerMusic.com English language site dedicated to the chord zither. The authors present arguments for the instrument to be renamed 'fretless zither'. Contains some dead links.
  • "Zither collection of the University of Leipzig" German language site with pictures of vintage instruments including bowed zithers (here called Streichzithern)
  • "Zither US" English language site based in the U.S.A.. Contains biographies of early performers and personalities associated with the history of concert and Alpine zithers, mainly in the U.S. Also contacts for resources like instrument maintenance, enthusiast clubs and events.
  • 'Zithernhistorie' German language site describing transition from drone zither to 19th century Mittenwald and Salzburg concert zither
  • Zitherseite von Werner Wölfing. German language site with photographs, history and different types of zither, links to further information and resources, zither makers and players
  • Anton Karas page by his Grandson (English version) von Werner Chudik. Contains article by Günter Wittenstein discussing the zither tuning used by Karas
  • Ruth Welcome Discography