豪勋爵岛
当地名称:Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe ISS006-E-5731.png
岛的卫星影像,上方为北方
Lord Howe Island.PNG
Flag of Lord Howe Island.svg
地理
位置 塔斯曼海
坐标 31°33′15″S 159°05′06″E / 31.55417°S 159.08500°E / -31.55417; 159.08500坐标31°33′15″S 159°05′06″E / 31.55417°S 159.08500°E / -31.55417; 159.08500
总岛屿 28
主要岛屿 豪勋爵岛、Admiralty Group英语Admiralty Group、Mutton Bird Islands和柏尔的金字塔
面积 14.55平方千米(5.62平方英里)
最高海拔 875米(2,871英尺)
最高点 高尔山
管辖
行政区划 新南威尔士州非建制地区
实行议会自治[1]
麦觉理港选区英语electoral district of Port Macquarie的一部分[2]
|国会雪梨选区的一部分[3]
人口统计
人口
  • 382
  • Tourists are restricted to 400 at any time.
(2016年普查)[4]
人口密度 26.25人/平方公里(67.99人/平方英里)
其他资料
时区
  • UTC+10:30(UTC+10:30)
 • 夏时制
官方名称 豪勋爵群岛
类型 Natural
标准 vii, x
指定 1982年 世界遗产委员会第六次聚会)
参考编码 186
 澳大利亚
区域 亚太区
指定保护地
官方名称 澳洲新南威尔士豪勋爵岛豪勋爵群岛
类型 自然
指定 2007年5月21日
参考编码 105694
文件编号 1/00/373/0001
指定保护地
官方名称 豪勋爵群岛
类型 州景观遗产
指定 1999年4月2日
参考编码 970
Type 其他 - 景观 - 文化
Category 景观 - 文化

豪勋爵岛Lord Howe Island/haʊ/)是位于澳大利亚新西兰之间的塔斯曼海中一座呈不规则新月形的岛屿,隶属于澳大利亚新南威尔士州,距澳洲本土麦觉理港以东约600千米(320海里)、悉尼东北方780千米(420海里)、诺福克岛西南方约900千米(490海里);长约10千米(6.2英里)、阔约0.3和2.0千米(0.19和1.24英里),面积14.55平方千米(3,600英亩),当中只有3.98平方千米(980英亩)的低地为已发展地区[5]

沿着岛的西岸,有一个由珊瑚礁围绕形成的沙质半开放潟湖。常住人口约350人,主要聚居于岛的北部;另外通常还有约400人的观光客。岛的南方有偏布森林的山,全岛最高处为海拔875米, 2,871英尺的高尔山(Mt. Gower)也在这里[6]。豪勋爵群岛由28个岛屿、小岛及岩礁组成[6]。除却豪勋爵岛本岛,最为人所注意的岛屿是无人火山岛Ball's Pyramid,距离豪勋爵岛东南方23千米(14英里;12海里)。群岛以北有一系列七座无人居住的岛链,叫作Admiralty Group英语Admiralty Group[7]

豪勋爵岛于1788年2月17日由亨利·利居柏德·柏尔英语Henry Lidgbird BallHenry Lidgbird Ball)所领导的英国皇家海军发现,以对法国作战有功的理查德·豪(Richard Howe,“Howe”姓也有译为“何奥”者)勋爵命名。

岛上一景。远方即为双子峰高尔山(Mt. Gower)与利居柏德山(Mt. Lidgbird)

豪勋爵岛是由海底2000多米深的火山运动与喷发而形成。联合国教育、科学及文化组织UNESCO)于1982年把豪勋爵岛与周围小岛列为具有自然方面重要性的世界自然遗产[8]

参看

参考文献

  1. ^ Regional Statistics – New South Wales (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2004 [2009-04-19]. 
  2. ^ Port Macquarie. New South Wales Electoral Commission. 2008 [2009-04-19]. 
  3. ^ Profile of the Electoral Division Sydney. Australian Electoral Commission. 2011 [2011-08-19]. 
  4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. Lord Howe Island (State Suburb). 2016 Census QuickStats. 27 June 2017. 
  5. ^ Draft Report: Review of the Lord Howe Island Act of 1954 (PDF). State of New South Wales, Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, February 2010. [2011-12-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于21 March 2011). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Lord Howe Island Group. Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. [2011-08-27]. 
  7. ^ Hutton 1986,第81页
  8. ^ Lord Howe Island Group. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2009 [2009-04-20]. 

参考书目

  • Allen, Gerald R.; 等. Annotated checklist of the fishes of Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum. 1976, 30 (15): 365–454. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.30.1976.287. 
  • Coleman, Neville. 1001 Nudibranchs – Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Springwood. 2001. ISBN 978-0-947325-25-1. 
  • Coleman, Neville. Lord Howe Island Marine Park: Sea Shore to Sea Floor: World Heritage Wildlife Guide. Rochedale: Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic. 2002. ISBN 978-0-947325-27-5. 
  • Daniel, M.J.; Williams, G.R. A survey of the distribution, seasonal activity and roost sites of New Zealand bats (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 1984, 7: 9–25. 
  • Etheridge, Robert. Lord Howe Island its zoology, geology, and physical characters. No. 5. The physical and geological structure of Lord Howe Island (PDF). Australian Museum Memoir. 1889, 2 (5): 99–126. ISSN 0067-1967. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1967.2.1889.483. 
  • Flannery, Tim. The Weather Makers – The History and Future Impact of Climate Change. Allen Lane. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7139-9921-1. 
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. A phylogeny and classification of the higher categories of turtles. (article 4). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History英语Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1975, 155 (5): 389–436. 
  • Gavrilets, Sergei; Vose, Arron. Case studies and mathematical models of ecological speciation. 2. Palms on an oceanic island. Molecular Ecology. 2007, 16 (14): 2910–2921. PMID 17614906. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03304.x. 
  • Green, Peter S. Lord Howe Island. (编) Orchard, Anthony E. Flora of Australia. Volume 49, Oceanic Islands 1. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. 1994. ISBN 0-644-29385-3. 
  • Harriott, V.J.; Harrison, P.L.; Banks, S.A. The coral communities of Lord Howe Island. Marine and Freshwater Research. 1995, 46 (2): 457–465. doi:10.1071/mf9950457. 
  • Hill, E S. Lord Howe Island – Official visit by the Water Police Magistrate and the Director of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney; together with a description of the island. Votes & Proc. Legislative Assembly New South Wales 1870. 1870: 635–654. 
  • Hutton, Ian. Lord Howe Island. Australian Capital Territory: Conservation Press. 1986. ISBN 978-0-908198-40-5. 
  • Hutton, Ian. Birds of Lord Howe Island – Past and Present. Ian Hutton. 1990. ISBN 978-0-646-02638-1. 
  • Hutton, Ian. The Australian Geographic Book of Lord Howe Island. Australian Geographic英语Australian Geographic. 1998. ISBN 978-1-876276-27-0. 
  • Hutton, Ian; Parkes, John P. & Sinclair, Anthony R. E., Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island (PDF), Animal Conservation, 2007, 10 (22): 22–29 [2011-06-25], doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00077.x 
  • Hutton, Ian. A Guide to World Heritage Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island Museum. 2009. 
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the ferns of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010a. ISBN 978-0-9581286-7-4. 
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the birds of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010b. ISBN 978-0-9581286-2-9. 
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the plants of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010c. ISBN 978-0-9581286-1-2. 
  • Hutton, Ian; Harrison, Peter. A field guide to the marine life of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2004. ISBN 978-0-9581286-3-6. 
  • Jones, R N. Managing Climate Change Risks. (编) Agrawala, S.; Corfee-Morlot, J. The Benefits of Climate Change Policies: Analytical and Framework Issues, OECD cited in the 联邦科学与工业研究组织's Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions". Paris: 249–298. 2004. [失效链接]
  • McDougall, I; Embleton, B J; Stone, D B. Origin and evolution of Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Geological Association of Australia. 1981, 28: 155–176. doi:10.1080/00167618108729154. 
  • Mueller, Ferdinand J.H. von. Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 9. Melbourne: Government Printer. 1875: 76–79. 
  • National Library of Australia. Lord Howe Island: 1788–1988. From Antipodean Isolation to World Heritage. A Bicentennial Publication (PDF). National Library of Australia. 1989 [2014-01-24]. ISBN 978-0-7316-3090-5. 
  • Nichols, Daphne. Lord Howe Island Rising. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Tower Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-646-45419-1. 
  • Pickard, John. Rare or threatened vascular plants of Lord Howe Island. Biological Conservation. 1983a, 27 (2): 125–139. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(83)90084-8. 
  • Pickard, John. Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia. 1983b, 17: 133–266. 
  • Pickard, John. Exotic plants of Lord Howe Island: distribution in space and time, 1853–1981. Journal of Biogeography. 1984, 11 (3): 181–208. JSTOR 2844639. doi:10.2307/2844639. 
  • Rabone, Harold R. Lord Howe Island: Its discovery and early associations 1788 to 1888. Sydney: Australis. 1972. 
  • Recher, Harry F; Clark, Stephen S. Environmental survey of Lord Howe Island : a report to the Lord Howe Island Board / edited by Harry F. Recher and Stephen S. Clark Lord Howe Island Board (N.S.W.). Australian Museum: Dept. of Environmental Studies. 1974. Recher, H. F.; Clark, S. S. A biological survey of Lord Howe Island with recommendations for the conservation of the island's wildlife. Biological Conservation. 1974, 6 (4): 263. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(74)90005-6. 
  • Starbuck, Alexander. History of the American Whaling Fishery from its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876. Waltham, Massachusetts: author. 1878. 
  • Veron, John E; Done, T J. Corals and coral communities of Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 1979, 30 (2): 203–236. doi:10.1071/mf9790203. 
  • Wallis, G.P.; Trewick, Steve A. New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent. Molecular Ecology. 2009, 18 (17): 3548–80. PMID 19674312. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04294.x. 
  • Wilson, J. Bowie (John Bowie). Report on the present state and future prospects of Lord Howe Island. T. Richards, Govt. Printer. 1882 [27 February 2017]. 

Attribution

Template:NSW-SHR-CC-contains

延伸阅读

  • Lindsay, MJ; Patterson, HM; Swearer, SE. Habitat as a surrogate measure of reef fish diversity in the zoning of the Lord Howe Island Marine Park, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2008, 353: 265–273. Bibcode:2008MEPS..353..265L. doi:10.3354/meps07155. 
  • O’Hara, Timothy. Bioregionalisation of the waters around Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands using brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea).. 2008. ISBN 978-0-642-55462-8. 
  • Harris, Peter T. Benthic environments of the Lord Howe Rise submarine plateau: Introduction to the special volume. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2010, 58 (7–8): 883–888. Bibcode:2011DSR....58..883H. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.044. 
  • Brown, Dianne; Baker, Lynn. The Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan: An integrated approach to recovery planning. Ecological Management & Restoration. 2009, 10: S70–S78. doi:10.1111/j.1442-8903.2009.00449.x. 
  • Anderson, Tara J.; Nichol, Scott L.; Syms, Craig; Przeslawski, Rachel; Harris, Peter T. Deep-sea bio-physical variables as surrogates for biological assemblages, an example from the Lord Howe Rise. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2010, 58 (7–8): 979. Bibcode:2011DSR....58..979A. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.053. 

外部链接

  • World heritage listing (Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities)
  • Lord Howe Island Act, 1953 (Australian Legal Information Institute)
  •  Lord Howe. 大英百科全书 第十一版. 1911年.