缅甸语
မြန်မာဘာသာ myanma bhatha
区域  缅甸
 泰国
 孟加拉国
 老挝
 马来西亚
 新加坡
 澳大利亚
 美国
母语使用人数 总人数:3200万
第二语言:1000万(日期不详)
语系
文字 缅文
官方地位
作为官方语言  缅甸
管理机构 缅甸语委员会
语言代码
ISO 639-1 my
ISO 639-2 bur (B)
mya (T)
ISO 639-3 mya

缅甸语မြန်မာဘာသာ)属汉藏语系藏缅语族,以仰光音为标准。它是缅甸联邦的官方语言,在该国有大约3200万人使用,而且在孟加拉国马来西亚泰国美国也有少量分布。

缅甸语共有33个辅音,并与母音拼合组成音节。它一共有四个声调,分别是高平、高降、低平和短促。

缅甸文字的特征是它呈圆形,这是因为古时候的缅甸文是书写在棕榈叶上的,必须设计圆弧形的笔划才能避免划破叶面。字符的构成是以辅音字母与元音拼合后形成音节符号。

古缅甸语和仰光话之间的历史演变

缅甸文在某种程度上代表古缅甸语,因此可以用缅甸文的罗马转写来推测古缅甸文的发音,从此也可以看出其与仰光话之间的巨大的区别。

缅甸文的拉丁字母转写方案英语Romanization of Burmese主要有John Okell英语John Okell制定的Okell拼音,缅甸语委会英语Myanmar Language Commission制定的语委拼音等。

罗马字拼写法举隅

  • Baranathee
  • Duzzaraik
  • Dzedi
  • Kium
  • Magga
  • Manh
  • Mar
  • Mat
  • Miemmo
  • Migadawon
  • Namau
  • Nat
  • Neimmo
  • Migadawon
  • Namau
  • Nat
  • Neibban
  • Niria
  • Pathanadi
  • Phungee
  • Ptetzega
  • Pitagat
  • Prachadi
  • Racior rathee
  • Radzagio
  • Rahan
  • Raoula

音系

声调

古缅甸语有三个声调,但其在12世纪的确切音值不清楚。仰光话按调值分保持了这三个声调:

  • 第一声:低平调334(在开音节中,用短元音符号表示,在闭音节中,在基本辅音之下加一个点)
  • 第二声:高平调554(在音节后加双空心点符号)
  • 第三声:高降调53(在开音节中,用长元音符号表示,在闭音节中,没有特殊的符号)

古缅甸文的塞音韵尾演变成喉塞音,可以算作第四个声调,但其调值和第三声53一样。

声调 缅文名 国际音标
(a的声调)
标记
(附加于a)
特征 延时
低平 နိမ့်သံ [aː˧˧˦] à 惯常
高平 တက်သံ [aː˥˥˦] á 有时略带气声
高降 သက်သံ [aˀ˥˧] 紧喉音,有时略带喉塞
高降喉塞 တိုင်သံ [ăʔ˥˧] 带喉塞


古缅甸文的鼻音韵尾演变成鼻化元音,调值可以是上面三个中的任何一个。

韵尾

古缅甸语的阳声韵韵尾在现代仰光话中一律合并为一个鼻音-ɴ,仰光话拉丁转写用-n表示。古缅甸语的入声韵的韵尾在现代仰光话中一律合并为一个喉塞音-ʔ,仰光话拉丁转写用-t表示。

辅音

缅甸语仰光话的辅音系统
双唇音 齿音 齿龈音 舌面音
软颚音
硬颚音
唇化舌根音
喉音 发音部位
塞音塞擦音 p b t d tʃʰ k g ʔ  
鼻音 m n ɲ̥ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ   ~ (鼻化元音)
擦音   θ (ð) s z ʃ   h  
半元音   (r) j (ʍ) w  
边音   l  

参考文献

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  • Benedict, Paul K. Tonal Systems in Southeast Asia. Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society). Oct–Dec 1948, 68 (4). JSTOR 595942. doi:10.2307/595942. 
  • Bradley, David. Pronouns in Burmese–Lolo (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman area (Melbourne: La Trobe University). Spring 1993, 16 (1). 
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  • Bradley, David. Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas 1. Walter de Gruyter. 1996. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9. 
  • Bradley, David. Uncles and Aunts: Burmese Kinship and Gender (PDF). South-east Asian Linguisitics: Essays in Honour of Eugénie J.A. Henderson (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London). 1989: 147–162. 
  • Bradley, David. 9. Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. (编) Martin J. Ball. The Routledge Handbook of Sociolinguistics Around the World (PDF). Routledge. 2010: 98–99. ISBN 978-0-415-42278-9. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2016-07-16). 
  • Bradley, David. Reflexives in Burmese (PDF). Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No. 13: studies in Burmese languages (Australian National University). 1995, (A-83): 139–172. 
  • Bradley, David. Changes in Burmese Phonology and Orthography. SEALS Conference. Kasetsart University. May 2011 [19 October 2013]. 
  • Bradley, David. The Characteristics of the Burmic Family of Tibeto-Burman. Language and Linguistics. 2012, 13 (1): 171–192. 
  • Chang, Charles Bond. “High-Interest Loans”: The Phonology of English Loanword Adaptation in Burmese (B.A.论文). Harvard University. 2003 [2011-05-24]. 
  • Chang, Charles B. English loanword adaptation in Burmese (PDF). Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 2009, 1: 77–94. 
  • Harvey, G. E. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 1925. 
  • Herbert, Patricia M.; Milner, Anthony. South-East Asia Languages and Literatures: A Select Guide. University of Hawaii Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-8248-1267-6. 
  • Hill, Nathan W. Evolution of the Burmese Vowel System (PDF). Transactions of the Philological Society. 2012, 110 (1): 64–79. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968x.2011.01282.x. 
  • Hnin Tun, San San. Burmese Phrasebook. Vicky Bowman. Lonely Planet. 2001. ISBN 978-1-74059-048-8. 
  • Houtman, Gustaaf. Traditions of Buddhist Practice in Burma. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. 1990. 
  • Jones, Robert. McCoy, John; Light, Timothy, 编. Pitch register languages. Contributions to Sino-Tibetan Studies (E. J. Brill). 1986. 
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  • Lieberman, Victor B. Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  • Nishi, Yoshio. The Development of Voicing Rules in Standard Burmese (PDF). Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (国立民族学博物馆). 30 October 1998, 23 (1): 253–260. [永久失效链接]
  • Nishi, Yoshio. The Orthographic Standardization of Burmese: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Speculations (PDF). Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (国立民族学博物馆). 31 March 1998, 22: 975–999. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013年10月22日). 
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  • Myanmar–English Dictionary. Myanmar Language Commission. 1993. ISBN 978-1-881265-47-4. 
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参考资料

  • Becker, Alton L. Biography of a sentence: A Burmese proverb. (编) E. M. Bruner (ed.). Text, play, and story: The construction and reconstruction of self and society. Washington, D.C.: American Ethnological Society. 1984: 135–55. 
  • Bernot, Denise. Le prédicat en birman parlé. Paris: SELAF. 1980. ISBN 2-85297-072-4 (法语). 
  • Cornyn, William Stewart. Outline of Burmese grammar. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America. 1944. 
  • Cornyn, William Stewart; D. Haigh Roop. Beginning Burmese. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1968. 
  • Cooper, Lisa; Beau Cooper; and Sigrid Lew. Paper presented at the 45th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics A phonetic description of Burmese obstruents 请检查|url=值 (帮助). Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 2012. 
  • Green, Antony D. Word, foot, and syllable structure in Burmese. (编) J. Watkins (ed.). Studies in Burmese linguistics. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. 2005: 1–25. ISBN 0-85883-559-2. 
  • Okell, John. A reference grammar of colloquial Burmese. London: Oxford University Press. 1969. ISBN 0-7007-1136-8. 
  • Roop, D. Haigh. An introduction to the Burmese writing system. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1972. ISBN 0-300-01528-3. 
  • Taw Sein Ko. Elementary handbook of the Burmese language. Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press. 1924. 
  • Watkins, Justin W. Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2001, 31 (2): 291–95. doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122. 
  • Patricia M Herbert, Anthony Milner (编). South East Asia Languages and Literatures: Languages and Literatures: A Select Guide. University of Hawaii Press. 1989. ISBN 0-8248-1267-0. 
  • Waxman, Nathan; Aung, Soe Tun. The Naturalization of Indic Loan-Words into Burmese: Adoption and Lexical Transformation. Journal of Burma Studies. 2014, 18 (2): 259–290. doi:10.1353/jbs.2014.0016. 

参见

外部链接

  • 维基导游中有关Burmese phrasebook的旅游指南
  • Omniglot: Burmese Language
  • Learn Burmese online
  • Online Burmese lessons
  • Burmese language resources from SOAS
  • E-books for children with narration in Burmese. Unite for Literacy library. [2014-06-21]. 
  • Myanmar Unicode and NLP Research Center
  • Myanmar 3 font and keyboard
  • Burmese online dictionary (Unicode)
  • Ayar Myanmar online dictionary[永久失效链接]
  • Myanmar unicode character table
  • Download KaNaungConverter_Window_Build200508.zip from the Kanaung project page and Unzip Ka Naung Converter Engine

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