Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse 1877.jpg
疑似“疯马”的照片,摄于1877年
部落 奥格拉拉·拉科塔英语Oglala Lakota
出生 约1840年
逝世 1877年9月5日(37岁)
内布拉斯加州罗宾逊要塞英语Fort Robinson
本名 Tȟašúŋke Witkó
昵称 Curly, Light Hair
知名于 小大角战役指挥官
亲属 黑麋鹿(堂弟)

疯马拉科塔语英语Lakota language:Tȟašúŋke Witkó;英语:Crazy Horse[1]约1845年-1877年9月5日),北美洲原住民印第安人民族苏族酋长军事家。他以勇猛善战著称,是北美印第安战争的灵魂人物之一。

疯马曾与奥格拉拉族头目“红云”、萨满巫师坐牛”一同在美西地区抵抗白人的入侵。其参与过最有名的战役是为了保护圣地而战的小大角战役。他们率领数千名印第安人,以优势兵力,在黑山山谷中歼灭了知名的美国第1骑兵师第7骑兵团两百余骑兵,击杀了该骑兵团指挥官卡士达,并伐取了其首级

美国政府得知消息,停止向苏族提供食物,同时赶走草原上的野牛,使他们无法猎食。为了保全部落,在1877年的五月初,疯马等酋长在罗宾逊军区投降,在1877年因为被指有越狱嫌疑,遭美军处决。

参考文献与脚注

  1. ^ 拉科塔语英语Lakota language名字意思是“他的马是疯狂的”,英文名字则是拉科塔语名字的意译。黑麋鹿解释道:“‘疯马’这名字并不表示他的马疯了,而是他的马在梦中以古怪的方式跳舞”。引自黑麋鹿口述,约翰·内哈特纪录,宾静荪译《巫士.诗人.神话:黑麋鹿如是说》(台北:立绪文化,2003),页75-76。

延伸阅读

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Crazy Horse and Custer: The epic clash of two great warriors at the Little Bighorn. 1975.
  • Bray, Kingsley M. Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life. 2006. ISBN 0-8061-3785-1
  • Clark, Robert. The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse: Three Eyewitness Views by the Indian, Chief He Dog the Indian White, William Garnett the White Doctor, Valentine McGillycuddy. 1988. ISBN 0-8032-6330-9
  • Marshall, Joseph M. III.英语Joseph M. Marshall III The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History. 2004.
  • Guttmacher, Peter and David W. Baird. Ed. Crazy Horse: Sioux War Chief. New York Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1994. 0–120. ISBN 0-7910-1712-5
  • McMurtry, Larry英语Larry McMurtry. Crazy Horse (Penguin Lives). Puffin Books. 1999. ISBN 0-670-88234-8
  • Pinn, Lionel Kitpu'se. Greengrass Pipe Dancers. 2000. ISBN 0-87961-250-9
  • Powers, Thomas英语Thomas Powers. The Killing of Crazy Horse. Random House, Inc. 2010. ISBN 978-0-375-41446-6.
  • Sandoz, Mari英语Mari Sandoz. Crazy Horse, the Strange Man of the Oglalas, a biography. 1942. ISBN 0-8032-9211-2
  • "Debating Crazy Horse: Is this the Famous Oglala". Whispering Wind magazine, Vol 34 #3, 2004. A discussion on the improbability of the Garryowen photo being that of Crazy Horse (the same photo shown here). The clothing, the studio setting all date the photo 1890–1910.
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part One: Creation, Spirituality, and the Family Tree. DVD. William Matson and Mark Frethem, producers. Documentary based on over 100 hours of footage shot of family oral history detailed interviews and all Crazy Horse sites. Family had final approval on end product. Reelcontact.com, 2006.
  • The Authorized Biography of Crazy Horse and His Family Part Two: Defending the Homeland Prior to the 1868 Treaty'. DVD William Matson and Mark Frethem, Producers. Reel Contact Productions, 2007.
  • Russell Freedman, The Life and Death of Crazy Horse. Holiday House. 1996. ISBN 978-0-8234-1219-8

外部链接

  • Final Days and Death of Crazy Horse
  • PBS Biography of Crazy Horse
  • Newly Discovered Alleged Photo of Crazy Horse
  • A timeline of Crazy Horse's life
  • Trimble: What did Crazy Horse look like?, Indian Country Today
  • William Bordeaux's Crazy Horse sketch at Yale University's Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library
  • Complete Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 《阿普尔顿美国传记百科全书》. 1900.