气候门
日期 2009-11-17
地点 英国东安格里亚大学气候研究小组
别名 气候门("Climategate")
查询 House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (UK)[1]
Independent Climate Change Email Review (UK)
International Science Assessment Panel (UK)
Pennsylvania State University (US)
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US)
Department of Commerce (US)
裁决 Exoneration or withdrawal of all major or serious charges

气候研究小组电邮争议(英语:Climatic Research Unit email controversy),俗称气候门事件Climategate[2][3],是指2009年11月发生在英国的隶属东安格里亚大学University of East Anglia,简称UEA)的气候研究小组(CRU:Climate Research Unit)被黑客入侵、与围绕温室效应研究相关的一系列电子邮件和档案被公开的事件[4][5][6]。事件发生在于丹麦首都哥本哈根举行的2009年联合国气候变化大会之前数个星期,入侵者从CRU的服务器里抄走数以千计的电邮副本及电脑档案,并且透过互联网分发到世界多个地方储藏。

事件最初由对气候变化怀疑论者从众多电邮及档案里精挑细选出来[7],刊登在他们的网志上[8],加上专栏作家James Delingpole英语James Delingpole的推波助澜,把争议事件称之为“气候门”[9]事件,使事情如滚雪球般壮大[7]。他们认为有关全球变暖的事件,其实背后有阴谋论在背后操控。

事件经过

2009年11月,某黑客入侵CRU的服务器,将存储在上面的个人档案以及发现的电子邮件发布于网络上[4](亦有人认为并非黑客所为,而是内部告发[10])。1996年以后的1000封以上的电子邮件以及3000份以上的内部文件被盗取。有关部门正在对此进行调查。对温室效应持有反对意见的团体认为,那些电子邮件通信是为了将气候变迁归咎于人类活动,而对数据进行篡改的密谋。他们将此事件作为科学史上的一大丑闻进行宣传,并模仿水门事件(Watergate)将此事件命名为“气候门(Climategate)”。

参见

相关研究

公元2009年发生“气候门事件”以后,《经济学人》曾经对于这个议题提出论述。台湾的研究者从《经济学人》得知该事件以后,便试图对于台湾自公元1961至2010年的温度变化进行研究,借此确认暖化现象是否真实发生。该论者从中央气象局调阅台北、台中、台南、高雄、花莲近五十年以来的平均气温数据,并且形塑成时间序列以后发现平均气温的趋势是逐年攀升,呈现暖化现象。但是由于考量到城市地区的气温变化很有可能是热岛效应所导致,所以该论者便又调阅鞍部、竹子湖、日月潭、阿里山、玉山近五十年以来的平均气温数据,进行研究。结果显示即便这些地区已经是人烟稀少的地方,极少受到人为因素的影响,可是平均气温的趋势仍然是逐年攀升。因此该论者以为台湾的平均气温在近五十年以来的变化确实为暖化现象,并非假造。[11]

参考资料

  1. ^ Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change. Government Response to the House of Commons Science and Technology 8th Report of Session 2009–10: The disclosure of climate data from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (PDF). The Stationery Office. [2014-11-17]. ISBN 978-0-10-179342-1. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2013-07-05). 
  2. ^ Chameides, Bill. Climategate Redux. Scientific American. 2010-08-30 [2011-08-17]. (原始内容存档于2013-12-03) (英语). 
  3. ^ Closing the Climategate. Nature. [2014-11-17]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-22).  |date=2010-11-18 |accessdate=2011-08-17 |language=en }}
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Hackers target leading climate research unit. BBC News. 2009-11-20 [2009-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-03). 
  5. ^ Pooley 2010, p. 425: "Climategate broke in November, when a cache of e-mails was hacked from a server at the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England." See: Pooley, Eric (2010). The Climate War: True Believers, Power Brokers, and the Fight to Save the Earth. Hyperion Books. ISBN 1-4013-2326-X; Karatzogianni 2010: "Most media representations of the Climategate hack linked the events to other incidents in the past, suggesting a consistent narrative frame which blames the attacks on Russian hackers...Although the Climategate material was uploaded on various servers in Turkey and Saudi Arabia before ending up in Tomsk in Siberia..." Extensive discussion about the media coverage of hacking and climategate in Karatzogianni, Athina. (2010). "Blame it on the Russians: Tracking the Portrayal of Russians During Cyber conflict Incidents 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆".Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian and Central European New Media. 4: 128–150. ISSN 2043-7633
  6. ^ Norfolk Constabulary. Police closes UEA investigation. 2012-07-18 [2012-07-18]. (原始内容存档于2012-07-19). 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 李细明; 李子祥. 真的假不了. 香港天文台. 2012-02-09 [2014-11-17]. (原始内容存档于2014-11-29) (中文(繁体)‎). 
  8. ^ Leiserowitz et al., 2010, "Climategate, Public Opinion, and the Loss of Trust 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆". Working Paper, Subject to Revision. Yale University.
  9. ^ Allchen 2010, p. 591: "James Delingpole, in a blog for England's Telegraph, promptly dubbed it "Climategate." See: Allchen, Douglas. (2010). "Sacred Bovines: The Nature of Science From Test Tubes to YouTube." American Biology Teacher. 72 (9):590–592. doi:10.1525/abt.2010.72.9.15; Booker 2009: "A week after my colleague James Delingpole , on his Telegraph blog, coined the term "Climategate" to describe the scandal revealed by the leaked emails from the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit, Google was showing that the word now appears across the internet more than nine million times." See: Booker, Christopher (2009) "Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of our generation 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆". The Telegraph. 28 November; For the original article see: Delingpole, James (2009). "Climategate: the final nail in the coffin of 'Anthropogenic Global Warming'? 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆" The Telegraph. 20 November; Nine days after his original article, Delingpole clarified how he came up with the name. Although he has been given credit for coining and popularizing the term (Booker 2009; Allchin 2010, etc.) he got the original idea from an anonymous blogger named "Bulldust" on the Watts Up With That blog. See: Delingpole, James (2009). "Climategate: how the 'greatest scientific scandal of our generation' got its name 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆". The Telegraph. 29 November; Delingpole told Dennis Miller, ""Climategate was the story that I helped to break..." See The Dennis Miller Show. (28 June 2011). "James Delingpole Interview". Event begins at 2:45.
  10. ^ 温暖化データねつ造疑惑 冲撃强く、欧米で大騒ぎ 12月9日19时15分配信 J-CASTニュース[永久失效链接]
  11. ^ 许世旻. 〈我们的地球真的发烧了吗?─以台湾近五十年以来的气温脉络为探究的出发点〉. 《史穗》. 2013, (6): 页31-60。. 

外部链接

  • Climatic Research Unit
  • Unwinding “Hide the Decline”, detailed video coverage on climatecrocks.com英语Peter Sinclair (blogger), 28 April 2011.
  • Climate wars: The story of the hacked emails, the full manuscript of an investigation by The Guardian into the emails.
  • Audio recording of a Guardian-sponsored debate on Climategate, held on 15 July 2010. The debaters were Trevor Davies, Doug Keenan, Stephen McIntyre, Fred Pearce, and Bob Watson; the debate was chaired by George Monbiot.
  • "The Great Climategate Debate". A video of a lecture held at the MIT School of Science on 10 December 2009. The moderator was Henry D. Jacoby (MIT). Speakers were Kerry Emanuel (MIT), Judith Layzer (MIT), Stephen Ansolabehere (MIT and Harvard), Ronald G. Prinn (MIT), and Richard Lindzen (MIT).
  • "The disclosure of climate data from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia". Video of House of Commons Select Committee oral evidence session, held on Monday 1 March 2010 at 3 pm. Witnesses are: (1) Rt Hon Lord Lawson of Blaby, Chairman, and Dr Benny Peiser, Director, Global Warming Policy Foundation; (2) Richard Thomas CBE; (3) Professor Edward Acton, Vice-Chancellor, University of East Anglia, and Professor Phil Jones, Director of the Climatic Research Unit; (4) Sir Muir Russell KCB, Head of the Independent Climate Change emails Review; (5) Professor John Beddington, Government Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor Julia Slingo OBE, Chief Scientist, Met Office, and Professor Bob Watson, Chief Scientist, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.