果食主义(英语:Fruitarianism)是素食主义纯素主义的一种,主张植物同样具有不可践踏的生命,因此主义实践者只吃植物的果实。果食主义中关于果的定义来自于植物学而非日常用语,也就是说黄瓜茄子蕃茄辣椒等通常不归类于水果的植物学果实是可以食用的。基于各种理由人们选择采取果食主义,包括道德宗教环保文化健康等等。有些人的当饮食超过75%都是由果实组成便自称为果食主义者。[1]

若利用果食节食减重,则是一种盲从饮食(英语:fad diets)。

定义

有些果食主义者只吃会从植物上自然掉落的食物,也就是不用伤害植物就能收割的食物[2][3][4] ,这些食物主要包括水果坚果种子[5]。根据作者Adam Gollner,有些果食主义者只吃已经掉落的果实 [6] 。也有一些不吃榖物的人,他们相信这是不自然的作法 [7]。有些人则认为不应食用会长成植物[6]、坚果、种子[8]及水果之前的一切植物的种子[9] [10] 。还有人相信应该只吃会在被吃掉后散播种子的植物[11]。一些果食主义者采用植物学的定义食用包括豆科植物在内的果实。也有包括生果、果干蜂蜜橄栏油在内[12],或食用水果、坚果、种子及巧克力的人[13]

动机

一些果食主义者为犹太基督徒,根据创世纪第一章二十九节,他们认为果食主义是亚当夏娃,也就是人类最初的饮食模式。同时他们也相信若要回归一个伊甸园般的乐园,将需要简单的生活与一个完全接纳健康与饮食的方法。[14]有些果食主义者(如耆那教徒)则希望避免杀害包括植物在内的任何生命,而被称为不害的果食主义者。[15]有些果食主义者主张吃植物的果食实际上是帮了它们一个大忙,因为有肉质的果食是演化成适合被动物所食用,借此得以繁衍后代。

科学研究

生物学研究

在1979年,一名约翰·霍普金斯大学古人类学家亚伦‧渥克教授(Professor Allen Walker)回报了一项关于原始人类牙齿珐琅质的初步研究,他发现人类祖先的饮食主要来自于果实。这项发现令他感到非常惊讶。[16]

临床研究

于1971年,一项由B. J. Meyer所主导的短期研究被发表在南非医学期刊(South African Medical Journal)上[17]。内容提到纯果食者其体内的血脂葡萄糖耐受度都有所进步[18]。根据该研究中更进一步的试验,对于一些过重的试验者在尝试果食法之后,其理想体重有下降的趋势。[19]

著名的果食主义者

一些知名的果食主义鼓吹者,或其饮食习惯被认为是果食主义者包括以下人物:

其他像是Ross Horne[25]还有Viktoras Kulvinskas[26] 他们似乎只以果食为主。[27] 有些人像是 Johnny Lovewisdom, 实验性地尝试不同饮食方法,包括纯果肉饮食,[28]果饮主义(只食用果汁),[29] 生机饮食主义(只饮用水果、蔬菜和生乳品)[30] 以及食气主义.[31]

历史人物

相关条目

注释

  1. ^ Tom Billings. Living and Raw Foods: Types of Raw Food Diets: A Brief Survey. Living and Raw Foods. 
  2. ^ Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, Rod Preece, UBC Press, 2008, "Since plants have life, it is necessary, if one is not to starve, to live from the fruit of the plant in such a manner that the host plant itself does not die."
  3. ^ Nutrition for the recreational athlete, Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson, page 95, “The fruitarian diet usually consists of consuming those parts of the plant that are cast off or dropped from the plant and that do not involve the destruction of the plant itself.”, 249 page, CRC Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8493-7914-8, ISBN 978-0-8493-7914-7
  4. ^ Handbook Of Pediatric Nutrition, Patricia Samour, “A fruitarian diet consists of only fruits. Any plant food that is botanically a fruit or can be obtained without killing or harming the plant is considered a fruit." Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2003, page 143.
  5. ^ The Vegetarian Society UK—Information Sheet—Definitions. Vegsoc.org. 2014-07-22 [2014-08-09]. (原始内容存档于1999-11-28). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 'The Fruit Hunters, Adam Leith Gollne, "Some factions eat only fallen fruit. Others refuse to eat any seeds because they contain future plants."
  7. ^ Raw Food Explained. Human Dietetic Character, I—Are We Grain Eaters?. Rawfoodexplained.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  8. ^ The Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics, Dr Johnny Lovewisdom, Ecuador: International University of the Natural Vitalogical Sciences, 1999, Introduction: "Nature is betrayed when man ingests the seeds of plants, depriving them of their means of propagating their own species"; chapter: Sugar & Starch-Friends Or Foes? "grains, nuts and other seeds are wrong as food sources"
  9. ^ To Those Considering A Fruitarian Diet. Beyondveg.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  10. ^ "Ascensional Science teaches the damaging effects of chlorophyll leafage, earthly roots and lower passion producing seeds. We are healed by levitational forces in fruit sugars and acids." Introduction to Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics, Johnny Lovewisdom, International University of the Natural Vitalogical Sciences, 1999
  11. ^ Living and Raw Foods: Alternative Eating Plans - USA TODAY. Living-foods.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  12. ^ Food, nutrition, and diet therapy: a textbook of nutritional care, Marie V. Krause, "The fruitarian diet consists of only raw or dried fruits, nuts, honey and olive oil." page 343, Saunders, 1984, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Aug 19, 2008, ISBN 0-7216-5514-9, ISBN 978-0-7216-5514-7
  13. ^ Handbook of Sunfood Living: Resource Guide for Global Health, John McCabe, North Atlantic Books, 2008, "other fruitarians also consumer cucumbers, olives, tomatoes, peppers, squash, beans, melon, avocadoes, berries, grapes, figs, dates, carob, chocolate, goji berries, nuts and even coconuts."
  14. ^ Berry, Rynn. Satya June/July 03: Raw History. 
  15. ^ "ahim-sa" - "the Hindu and Buddhist doctrine of refraining from harming any living being", Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ahinsa
  16. ^ Rensberger, Boyce. Teeth Show Fruit Was The Staple; No Exceptions Found. The New York Times. May 15, 1979: C1 [2009-11-01]. Paid subscription required
  17. ^ "The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents most medical professionals in South Africa.", African Journals Online, http://ajol.info/index.php/samj
  18. ^ B. J. Meyer; E. J. P. de Bruin; D. G. du Plessis; M. van der Merwe; A. C. Meyer. Some biochemical effects on a mainly fruit diet in man (PDF). South African Medical Journal. 1971-03-06, 45 (10): 253–61 [2009-11-11]. PMID 5573330. "The effect of a nut-supplemented fruit diet on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, plasma proteins and plasma lipids was investigated. The results suggest that, at least for the period covered by the experiment and under the prevailing conditions, the diet was adequate with respect to the parameters investigated, and may even have something to commend it."
  19. ^ Meyer BJ et al. "Some physiological effects of a mainly fruit diet in man". South African Medical Journal, February 20, 1971; vol. 45, pp. 191-5. "An interesting aspect of the diet was the tendency for the weights to level off more or less at the 'theoretically ideal' weight for the subject."
  20. ^ "Failure of a Womanless Eden in the Pacific - Strange Story from the South Seas", The New York Times, October 15, 1905, "For days he lived alone, eating nothing but bread fruit and cocoanuts," "Of the food of choice, he lacked none.", "Weeks of life under the sun in the salt sea, and living upon fruit, had brought him to a state of wonderful physical perfection.", "For nearly two years more he continued to live the 'pure, natural life' but the charm had been completely broken by the death of his two disciples.", "in 1903, came a drought which reduced the fruit crop. The little left of it was wiped out in the Spring of 1904 by a storm. Engelhardt had the alternative of casting in his lot with the natives and eating on hogflesh, or sending a request for succor to Ulu or Herbertshohe. He did neither in his stubbornness, and starvation and thirst did their work."
  21. ^ Arnold Ehret, Mucusless Diet Healing System Mucusless Diet Healing System, ISBN 1-884772-00-5, 75th Anniversary edition, "The next winter I went to Algiers, in northern Africa. The mild climate and the wonderful fruits improved my condition and gave me more faith in Nature's methods and an understanding of them, and I gained courage to try short fasts to assist the cleansing properties of fruit and climate, with such results that one morning of a well feeling day I chanced to notice in my mirror that my face had taken on an entirely new look", p. 15, "Arriving home again.... I gradually took up the ordinary diet.", p. 15, "My experience, tests, and experiments as well as cures, all showed that grape sugar of fruits was the essential material of human food, giving the highest efficiency and endurance, and at the same time was the best eliminator of debris and the most efficient healing agent known for the human body", p. 16, "To test our efficiency at exhaustive labor, we took a trip through northern Italy, walking for 56 hours continuously without sleep or rest or food, only drink. This after a seven-day fast and then only one meal of two pounds of cherries.", p. 17
  22. ^ Raymond W. Bernard, Organic Way To Health Vol. 1-4, Health Research Books, 1996, p. 2, "I have tried non-vegetarian diets, vegetarian diets, raw food diets, fruitarian diets, and many other kinds of diets."
  23. ^ Ron Lagerquist, North American Diet, International Bible Society (1984). "Essie Honiball lived exclusively on fruit and a small amounts of nuts."
  24. ^ Essie Honiball, I Live On Fruit. Macro Books, Pretoria 1981. First edition. p. 9, Chapter 1: "One does not easily cast aside established habits almost overnight.... This is precisely what I did in 1958 when I, after a three day water fast, started living on fresh fruit and nuts. That was twenty years ago.", p. 17, Chapter 1: "Today I still live virtually exclusively on fruit.", p. 18, Chapter 2: "The Diet on which I have lived since 1958 is so simple that it appears almost laughable in a line of complicated diets —I live on fresh fruit and nuts.", p. 19, Chapter 2: "I can live on fruit alone, but not on vegetables."
  25. ^ Horne, Ross (1997) Chapter "Dieting for Health and Longevity", section "The Natural Diet Of Man", in Health and Survival in the 21st Century Harper Collins. Quote: "The study of comparative anatomy and the different natural diets of animals in the wild indicates strongly that the natural diet of early humans consisted predominantly of sweet fruits, and that even though millions of years have passed, the anatomy and digestive apparatus of humans has not changed and is therefore still best suited to fruit as the most suitable food."
  26. ^ Kulvinskas, Viktoras P. (1981) Life in the 21st Century. Twenty First Century Publications. ISBN 978-0-933278-00-4.
  27. ^ Kulvinskas, Viktoras P. (2002) Survival into the 21st Century Arizona: Ihopea Incorporated.
  28. ^ Lovewisdom, Joynny (1999) The Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics San Francisco: Paradisian Publications. Quote: "In two years, I was living exclusively on juicy fruits, condemning the use of nuts in the fruit diet which other fruitarians before me had used with adverse results due to the lack of the life-giving living water in nuts, making them the 'Tempters of Satan'" in section 'My Calling To The Carpophagous Conception'"
  29. ^ Lovewisdom, Johnny (1980)Modern Live Juice Fasting Connecticut: O'mangod Press. Chapter 1. Quote: "I found the living blood of fruits and many vegetables a much purer life-giving, naturally prepared directly assimilable blood transfusion than can be expected from tired, worn-out, diseased blood of ordinary civilized humans."; chapter 3 "in 1953-54, I realized the true 6 months 7 day water fast with the purest distilled water usually tinctured with tomato juice"
  30. ^ Lovewisdon, Johnny (1950) Spiritualizing Dietetics: Vitarianism, Loja, Ecuador: International University Of The Natural Vitalogical Sciences. p.82 Quote: "(Vitarianism) advocates live or Vita-foods"
  31. ^ Puented, Miguel A. (June 7, 1949) A Message Of Peace By One Who Lives In A Volcano!, Mundial, Montevideo, Uruguay. Section "His Life In Practice" Quote: "He went on fasts, one of which he recently reached 40 days without taking anything but water with a few drops of lime juice."
  32. ^ Goline, Adam Leith (2013) The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce and Obsession New York: Scribner ISBN 9781476704999. Quote: "Idi Amin, the tyrannical Ugandan dictator, lived his final years in Saudi Arabia as a fruitarian (his affinity for oranges earned him the nickname "Dr. Jaffa")."
  33. ^ Gandhi, Mohandas K., Desai, Valji Govindji (trans.)"Tolstoy Farm III" in Satyagraha in South Africa ~ XXXV. Quote: "[D]uring five years of a purely fruitarian life I never felt weak, nor did I suffer from any disease".
  34. ^ Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth, Social Sciences Series, Mohandas Gandhi, Gandhi (Mahatma), Mahadev Haribhai Desai, Dover, 1983, p. 318. "Dr. Jivraj Mehta treated me. He pressed me hard to resume milk and cereals, but I was obdurate."
  35. ^ Gokhale's Charity, My Experiments with Truth, M. K. Gandhi.
  36. ^ Berlet, Chip, Vysotsky, Stanislavstated. "Overview of U.S. White Supremacist Groups", Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2006.
  37. ^ Salubrious Living (Creativity Book Publishers, 1982, and World Church of Creativity, 2003), chapter 'The Fruitarian Diet': "The fruitarian diet is composed of the products of the plant kingdom which are delicious and appealing to our taste in their natural uncooked condition. As fruits, vegetables and nuts are the foods which meet this qualification in an ideal manner they are the primary foods used by the fruitarian."
  38. ^ "Steve Jobs" by Walter Isaacson. "Finally Jobs proposed Apple Computer. 'I was on one of my fruitarian diets,' [Jobs] explained." p. 120. "She just wanted him to be healthy, and [Jobs] would be making weird pronouncements like, 'I'm a fruitarian and I will only eat leaves picked by virgins in the moonlight.'" p. 68.