新仙女木事件,也称为克洛维斯彗星假说,是为解释末次冰期之后的新仙女木期的一个极具竞争性的科学假说。这个假设,科学家们还在争辩中,提出当时的气候是因为一颗或多颗彗星的撞击,或是爆发性的空气冷却[1][2][3]

一般性的假设指出,距今大约12,900年前(未经14C校准前为10,900年),近地小行星的撞击或空气爆发造成北美洲大陆地区的大火,扰乱了气候和造成北美洲地区的第四纪灭绝事件。其结果是北美洲大多数的更新世巨型动物群灭绝,和克洛维斯文化迅速的灭亡[4]。在气候再度变得温暖之前,新仙女木冰河期持续了约1,200年。此一事件也被视为全新世灭绝事件的一部分。

在大湖区的劳伦台德冰盖英语Laurentide Ice Sheet可能出现一次或多次的大爆炸。虽然没有主要的陨石坑被鉴定出来,支持者建议这种可能的空中爆炸解体与1908年的通古斯事件相似,但规模更大[5][6]。这个对美洲大陆生态破坏性影响的假说提出,认为生活在北美洲的动物和人类不是直接死于爆炸,就是因此产生的野火

大量的研究档案指出这个假设事件(或一系列事件)的影响超出了美洲的范围,其影响遍及全球各大洲,例如,James Wittke等人的文档指出撞击的小球体在12,800年前的沉积影响跨越四大洲,包括欧洲和中东地区[7]

证据

主要是来自于美索不达米亚平原上的考古遗迹考古学家美索不达米亚平原的北部,找到一个距今约10000多年前,有很多山羊绵羊骨骼聚集的人类遗迹,可能是人类最早开始畜牧的证据。同时在美索不达米亚平原的地层中,小麦大麦种子所占的比例突然大幅增加,虽然这还不能证明人类已经开始农耕,但至少表现出了在恶劣环境之下,人类努力求生的智慧。

相关条目

参考资料

  1. ^ Firestone, Richard; West, Allen; Warwick-Smith, Simon. The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: How a Stone-Age Comet Changed the Course of World Culture. Bear & Company. 4 June 2006: 392. ISBN 1591430615. 
  2. ^ Firestone RB, West A, Kennett JP, 等. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. October 2007, 104 (41): 16016–21. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10416016F. PMC 1994902. PMID 17901202. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706977104. 
  3. ^ Bunch TE, Hermes RE, Moore AM, 等. Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. June 2012, 109 (28): E1903–12. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109E1903B. PMID 22711809. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204453109. 
  4. ^ Kennett DJ, Kennett JP, West A; 等. Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer. Science. 2009-01, 323 (5910): 94. Bibcode:2009Sci...323...94K. PMID 19119227. doi:10.1126/science.1162819. 
  5. ^ Napier WM. Palaeolithic extinctions and the Taurid Complex. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. July 2010, 405 (3): 1901_1906. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.405.1901N. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16579.x. 
  6. ^ Napier WM. Palaeolithic extinctions and the Taurid Complex. arXiv. March 2010,. arXiv:1003.0744. 
  7. ^ James H. Wittke, James C. Weaver, Ted E. Bunch, James P. Kennett, Douglas J. Kennett, Andrew M. T. Moore, Gordon C. Hillman, Kenneth B. Tankersley, Albert C. Goodyear, Christopher R. Moore, I. Randolph Daniel, Jack H. Ray, Neal H. Lopinot, David Ferraro, Isabel Israde-Alcántara, James L. Bischoff, Paul S. DeCarli, Robert E. Hermes, Johan B. Kloosterman, Zsolt Revay, George A. Howard, David R. Kimbel, Gunther Kletetschka, Ladislav Nabelek, Carl P. Lipo, Sachiko Sakai, Allen West, Richard B. Firestone. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013-06-04, 110 (23): E2088–E2097 [2018-04-02]. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301760110. 

进阶读物

  • James Kennett, UC Santa Barbara, May 21, 2013, Comprehensive Analysis of Impact Spherules Supports Theory of Cosmic Impact 12,800 Years Ago
  • Holliday, V. T., 2011, A Cosmic Catastrophe: The Great Clovis Comet Debate: A personal perspective on an Outrageous Hypothesis. Argonaut Archaeological Research Fund, Department of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
  • Pringle, H., 2008, Firestorm from space wiped out prehistoric Americans[永久失效链接]. The New Scientist. vol. 194, no. 2605, pp. 8–9.
  • West, A., and A. Goodyear, 2008, The Clovis Comet: Part I:Evidence for a Cosmic Collision 12,900 Years Ago. Mammoth Trumpet. v. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–4.

外部链接

  • Younger Dryas Boundary: Extraterrestrial Impact or Not (pdf). www.georgehoward.net. [2012-04-15]. 
  • Younger Dryas Boundary: Extraterrestrial Impact or Not? (pdf). www.georgehoward.net. [2012-04-15]. 
  • Hoffman, Carey. Exploding Asteroid Theory Strengthened by New Evidence Located in Ohio, Indiana. University of Cincinnati. 2008-07-02 [2008-08-05]. 
  • Science & Environment: Diamond clues to beasts' demise. BBC NEWS. [2012-04-15]. 
  • Sciency Thoughts: Evidence for a Younger Dryas impact event?. [2012-04-15]. 
  • The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis. Scientific American Blog Network. [2012-04-15]. 
  • New Clovis-Age Comet Impact Theory. [2012-04-15].