古吉拉特语
ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī
发音 /gudʒ.(ə)'ɾat̪i/
区域 印度, 巴基斯坦, 南非共和国, 乌干达, 坦桑尼亚, 肯尼亚, 美国, 英国, 澳大利亚, 新西兰, 斐济, 加拿大, 赞比亚, 津巴布韦
母语使用人数 4.61千万[1](日期不详)
语系
印欧语系
文字 古吉拉特文
官方地位
作为官方语言 印度古吉拉特邦[1][2]
语言代码
ISO 639-1 gu
ISO 639-2 guj
ISO 639-3 guj
Glottolog guja1252[3]
语言瞭望站 59-AAF-h
Gujaratispeakers.png
Distribution of native Gujarati speakers in India

古吉拉特语ગુજરાતી拉丁化:Gujarātī)属于印欧语系印度-伊朗语族印度-雅利安语支,为印度22种官方语言与14种地区性语言之一,同时也是巴基斯坦少数民族语言。全球有大约4600万人讲这种语言,为世界上第23大语言。从使用的人群主要分布来看,印度4550万,乌干达15万,巴基斯坦10万,肯尼亚5万。

古吉拉特语为印度古吉拉特邦、联邦属地达德拉-纳加尔哈维利达曼-第乌的主要语言,同时也是孟买古吉拉特人社区的语言,在北美和英国有众多讲古吉拉特语的居民。古吉拉特语也是印度国父圣雄甘地、巴基斯坦国父穆罕默德·阿里·真纳沙达·瓦拉汉·佩帖尔(被誉为铁人的印度首位内政大臣)的第一语言。

音系

元音
i u
e o
ɛ ə ɔ
ɑ
辅音
双唇音 唇齿音 齿音/
齿龈音
卷舌音 龈后音/
硬腭音
软腭音 声门音
鼻音 m n ɳ
塞音 p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
g
塞擦音
tʃʰ

dʒʱ
擦音 s ʃ ɦ
闪音 ɾ
近音 ʋ l ɭ j

文法

古吉拉特语是一种头-终结或左-分支语言。形容词前导名词直接宾语先于动词,并且它有后置词。古吉拉特语的语序SOV,并且它有三个和两个。没有定冠词不定冠词。动词表达为它的动词词根跟上标记文法体呼应后缀,以此叫做主形式,带有从 to be 派生的可能的前导辅助形式,标记时态语气,并也展示呼应。使役式(直到双重)和被动式有着构词基础。[4]

参考资料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Gordon 2005
  2. ^ Dwyer 1995,第5页
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Gujarati. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  4. ^ Mistry 2001,第276-277页

参考文献

字典

  • Belsare, M.B. (1904) An etymological Gujarati-English Dictionary.
  • Deshpande英语Deshpande, P.G. (1974) Gujarati-English Dictionary. Ahmadabad: University Granth Nirman Board.
  • Deshpande, P.G. (1982) Modern English-Gujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Deshpande, P.G. & Parnwell, E.C. (1977) Oxford Picture Dictionary. English-Gujarati. Oxford University Press.
  • Deshpande, P.G. (1988) Universal English-Gujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Mehta, B.N. & Mehta, B.B. (1925) The Modern Gujarati-English Dictionary.
  • Platts, J.T., A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co, 1884 .
  • Suthar, B.英语Babu Suthar (2003) Gujarati-English Learner's Dictionary (1 Mb)
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley, A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, 1966 .

语法

  • Cardona, George, A Gujarati Reference Grammar, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965 .
  • Taylor, G.P., The Student's Gujarati Grammar, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1908 .
  • Tisdall, W.S., A Simplified Grammar of the Gujarati Language, 1892 .

课程

  • Dave, Jagdish, Colloquial Gujarati 2004, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-415-09196-9 .
  • Gujarati Literary Academy英语Gujarati Literary Academy UK, Text Books 1 to 5 1985, Navabharat Sahitya Mandir Mumbai, 1985 .
  • Dwyer, Rachel, Teach Yourself Gujarati, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1995, (原始内容存档于2008-01-02) .
  • Lambert, H.M., Gujarati Language Course, Cambridge University Press, 1971 .

语音

  • Dave, T.N., Notes on Gujarati Phonology, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, 1931, 6 (3): 673–678, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00093174 .
  • Firth, J.R., Phonetic Observations on Gujarati, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1957, 20 (1): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00061802 .
  • Mistry, P.J., Gujarati Phonology, (编) Kaye, A.S., Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1997 .
  • Pandit, P.B., Historical Phonology of Gujarati Vowels, Language, 1961, 37 (1): 54–66, doi:10.2307/411249 .
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley, Gujarati Phonology, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1921: 505–544 .
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley, Indo-Aryan Nasals in Gujarati, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1915: 1033–1038 .

概论

  • Cardona, George; Suthar, Babu, Gujarati, (编) Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Dalby, Andrew, Gujarati, Dictionary of languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, New York: Columbia University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-231-11568-7 .
  • Mistry, P.J., Gujarati, (编) Frawley, William, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 2 2nd, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003 .
  • Mistry, P.J., Gujarati, (编) Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl, An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present, New England Publishing Associates, 2001 .

老古吉拉特语

  • Bender, E. (1992) The Salibhadra-Dhanna-Carita: A Work in Old Gujarati Critically Edited and Translated, with a Grammatical Analysis and Glossary. American Oriental Society: New Haven, Conn. ISBN 0-940490-73-0
  • Brown, W.N., An Old Gujarati Text of the Kalaka Story, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1938, 58 (1): 5–29, doi:10.2307/594192 .
  • Dave, T.N. (1935) A Study of the Gujarati Language in the XVth Century. The Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 0-947593-30-6
  • Tessitori, L.P. (1914–1916) "Notes on the Grammar of Old Western Rajasthani." Indian Antiquary. 43–45.

其它

  • Gajendragadkar, S.N., Parsi Gujarati, Bombay: University of Bombay, 1972 .
  • Masica, Colin, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Mistry, P.J., Gujarati Writing, (编) Daniels; Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, 1996 .

外部链接

  • Gujarati Online Dictionary & Language Resources
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Gujarati
  • Gujarati Wiktionary
  • Bharatiya Bhasha Jyoti: Gujarati —a textbook for learning Gujarati through Hindi from the Central Institute of Indian Languages英语Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  • English to Gujarati Dictionary