暗杀或称行刺密裁指因为一些原因而进行的谋杀,常常是政治因素;执行暗杀的人称为刺客。一些恐怖组织(最早为中世纪的阿萨辛派,其后则有近代的爱尔兰新芬党、意大利烧炭党、俄罗斯民意党和中国斧头帮等)常派出刺客谋刺各国元首、重要领袖。同样地,许多国家的情报机构秘密警察也都秘密地训练刺客,例如美国中央情报局(CIA)、俄国国安会(KGB)、英国军情六处(MI6)、以色列情报特勤局(Mossad,莫萨德)和中国国安部(MSS)等,用以刺杀敌国或恐怖组织的高阶领导人持不同政见者

在政治与军事策略上,暗杀的目的是借由结束敌对势力首脑的生命,以期能在短时间内达到恫吓或瓦解敌方士气、混乱或瘫痪敌方指挥系统。在执行方法上主要可被分为三种:

  1. 直接暗杀:刺客直接刺杀、射杀、毒杀、斩杀或以炸弹炸死目标,虽然最简单而直截了当、相对成本低而成功率高,但事件公开后有很大机会会对幕后主谋带来麻烦。
  2. 意外式暗杀:刺客透过蓄意制造车祸空难疾病火灾、失足、溺水电击食物中毒、亲友互残、甚至不惜制造无辜伤亡,以制造目标不幸遭遇意外逝世的假象令执法部门无法追查。此等方法带来的风险相对较低,但通常较为复杂,成本及失败率亦相对较高。
  3. 隐蔽式暗杀:刺客将目标绑架至秘密处所杀害(甚至或可于死前酷刑逼供以套取重要情报),尸体销毁(以火化方式居多)后往往无法寻获。查缉侦察人员最终多仅能以失踪结案。

另外有时为摧杀目标,常以诱饵诱引目标,诱饵往往借由牺牲,使目标暴露踪迹或共同毁灭,以达暗杀之目的。

参见

延伸阅读

  • Clarke, James W. (2006). Defining Danger: American Assassins and the New Domestic Terrorists, 2006.
  • Clarke, James W. (2011). "America's History of Crazy Political Assassins Didn't Begin with Loughner", History News Network, Jan. 28, 2011.
  • Porter, Lindsay. Assassination: a History of Political Murder. Thames and Hudson. 2010.  Review The Daily Telegraph, Apr 3, 2010.

外部链接

  • Assassinology.org a website dedicated to the study of assassination
  • Notorious Assassinations – slideshow by Life magazine
  • CNN A short article on the U.S. policy banning political assassination since 1976 from CNN.com/Law Center, November 4, 2002. See also Ford's 1976 executive order. However, Executive Order 12333, which prohibited the CIA from assassinations, was relaxed by the George W. Bush administration.
  • Kretzmer, David Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence? (PDF). (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2008年3月7日).  (PDF)
  • Is the CIA Assassination Order of a US Citizen Legal? – video by Democracy Now!